Why parts of Good Friday worship have been controversial

first_img The Anatomy of Fear Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. By Joanne M. Pierce, Professor of Religious Studies, College of the Holy CrossChurches around the world will be holding services for their three most important days during this Holy Week: Holy Thursday, sometimes called Maundy Thursday, Good Friday and Easter Sunday.Easter commemorates Christ’s resurrection from the dead, the fundamental belief of Christianity. It is the earliest and most central of all Christian holidays, more ancient than Christmas.As a scholar in medieval Christian liturgy, I know that historically the most controversial of these three holy days has been the worship service for Good Friday, which focuses on the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.Two parts of the contemporary Good Friday worship service could be misunderstood as implicitly anti-Semitic or racist. Both are derived from the medieval Good Friday liturgy that Catholics and some other Christian churches continue to use in a modified form today.These are the solemn orations and the veneration of the cross.Prayer and anti-SemitismThe solemn orations are formal prayers offered by the assembled local community for the wider church, for example, for the pope. These orations also include other prayers for members of different religions, and for other needs of the world.One of these prayers is offered “for the Jewish people.”For centuries, this prayer was worded in a way to imply an anti-Semitic meaning, referring to the Jews as “perfidis,” meaning “treacherous” or “unfaithful.”However, the Catholic Church made important changes in the 20th century. In 1959, Pope John XXIII dropped the word “perfidis” entirely from the Latin prayer in the all-Latin Roman missal. This missal, an official liturgical book containing the readings and prayers for the celebration of Mass and Holy Week, is used by Catholics all over the world. However, when the next edition of the Latin Roman missal was published in 1962, the text of the prayer still mentioned the “conversion” of the Jews and referred to their “blindness.”The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, a major meeting of all Catholic bishops worldwide held between 1962 and 1965, mandated the reform of Catholic life and practice in a number of ways. Open discussion with members of other Christian denominations, as well as other non-Christian religions, was encouraged, and a Vatican commission on Catholic interaction with Jews was established in the early 1970s.Vatican II also called for a renewal of Catholic worship. The revised liturgy was to be celebrated not just in Latin, but also in local vernacular languages, including English. The first English Roman missal was published in 1974. Today, these post-Vatican religious rituals are known as the “ordinary form” of the Roman rite.The completely reworded prayer text reflected the renewed understanding of the relationship between Catholics and Jews mandated by Vatican II and supported by decades of interreligious dialogue. For example, in 2015 the Vatican commission released a document clarifying the relationship between Catholicism and Judaism as one of “rich complementarity,” putting an end to organized efforts to convert Jews and strongly condemning anti-Semitism.However, another important development took place in 2007. More than 40 years after Vatican II, Pope Benedict XVI allowed a wider use of the pre-Vatican II missal of 1962, known as the “extraordinary form.”At first, this pre-Vatican II missal retained the potentially offensive wording of the prayer for the Jews.The prayer was quickly reworded, but it does still ask that their hearts be “illuminated” to “recognize Jesus Christ.”Although the extraordinary form is used only by small groups of traditionalist Catholics, the text of this prayer continues to trouble many.In 2020, on the 75th anniversary of the liberation of the concentration camp at Auschwiz, Pope Francis repeated the vehement Catholic rejection of anti-Semitism. While the pope has not revoked the use of the extraordinary form, in 2020 he ordered a review of its use by surveying the Catholic bishops of the world.The cross and what it symbolizesThe veneration of the cross is celebrated on Good Friday the Cathedral of San Giusto in Italy. Jacopo Landi/NurPhoto via Getty ImagesThere has been similar sensitivity about another part of the Catholic Good Friday tradition: the ritual veneration of the cross.The earliest evidence of a Good Friday procession by lay people to venerate the cross on Good Friday comes from fourth-century Jerusalem. Catholics would proceed one by one to venerate what was believed to be a piece of the actual wooden cross used to crucify Jesus, and honor it with a reverent touch or kiss.So sacred was this cross fragment that it was heavily guarded by the clergy during the procession in case someone might try to bite off a sliver to keep for themselves, as was rumored to have happened during a past Good Friday service.During the medieval period, this veneration rite, elaborated by additional prayers and chant, spread widely across Western Europe. Blessed by priests or bishops, ordinary wooden crosses or crucifixes depicting Christ nailed to the cross took the place of fragments of the “true cross” itself. Catholics venerated the cross on both Good Friday and other feast days.In this part of the Good Friday liturgy, controversy centers around the physical symbol of the cross and the layers of meaning it has communicated in the past and today. Ultimately, to Catholics and other Christians, it represents Christ’s unselfish sacrificing of his life to save others, an example to be followed by Christians in different ways during their lives.Historically, however, the cross has also been held up in Western Christianity as a rallying point for violence against groups that were deemed by the church and secular authorities to threaten the safety of Christians and the security of Christian societies.From the late 11th through 13th centuries, soldiers would “take the cross” and join crusades against these real and perceived threats, whether these opponents were Western Christian heretics, Jewish communities, Muslim armies, or the Greek orthodox Byzantine Empire. Other religious wars in the 14th through 16th centuries continued in this “crusading” spirit.From the 19th century on, Americans and other English speakers use the term “crusade” for any effort to promote a specific idea or movement, often one based on a moral ideal. Examples in the United States include the 19th-century antislavery abolitionist movement and the civil rights movement of the 20th century.But today certain “ideals” have been rejected by the wider culture.Contemporary alt-right groups use what has been called the “Deus vult” cross. The words “Deus vult” mean “God wills (it),” a rallying cry for medieval Christian armies seeking to take control of the Holy Land from Muslims. These groups today view themselves as modern crusaders fighting against Islam.Some white supremacy groups use versions of the crossas symbols of protest or provocation. The Celtic cross, a compact cross within a circle, is a common example. And a full-sized wooden cross was carried by at least one protester during the Capitol insurrection in January.Prayers and symbols have the power to bind people together in a common purpose and identity. But without understanding their context, it is all too easy to manipulate them in support of dated or limited political and social agendas.This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Photo by DNK PHOTO Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate center_img Please enter your name here LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply Please enter your comment! You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here TAGSCatholicChristianEaster SundayFaithGood FridayhistoryInspirationJewishLiturgyMaundy ThursdayMuslimPrayersReligionRitualsSymbolsThe ConversationWorship Previous articleDistrict proclaims April ‘Water Conservation Month’ to heighten awareness that help is neededNext articleOrange Co. provides more details on teen vaccines and rental assistance; FEMA vaccine sites open Easter Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHORlast_img read more

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YEASTERYEAR: Sterling Brewers, Inc.

first_imgSterling Brewers, Inc.With the influx of German immigrants into Evansville in the nineteenth-century, beer production was a major industry throughout much of the city’s history, especially on the West Side. Sterling Brewery evolved from the Fulton Avenue Brewery, which had opened at Fulton and Pennsylvania (now the Lloyd Expressway) in 1880. The building was also notable for being the first in Evansville to boast electric lights. By 1920, the Fulton Brewery was renamed Sterling, which survived Prohibition by manufacturing malts and other food products. The company’s long history finally ended in 1997, and the plant was razed a year later.FOOTNOTES: We want to thank Patricia Sides, Archivist of Willard Library for contributing this picture that shall increase people’s awareness and appreciation of Evansville’s rich history. If you have any historical pictures of Vanderburgh County or Evansville please contact please contact Patricia Sides, Archivist Willard Library at 812) 425-4309, ext. 114 or e-mail her at www.willard.lib.in.us.FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailSharelast_img read more

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Wisconsin’s Frank Kaminsky, Nigel Hayes and Duje Dukan Are Hanging With Local Elementary Students Today

first_imgFrank Kaminsky on the court against Duke.INDIANAPOLIS, IN – APRIL 06: Frank Kaminsky #44 of the Wisconsin Badgers reacts after falling to the court in the first half against the Duke Blue Devils during the NCAA Men’s Final Four National Championship at Lucas Oil Stadium on April 6, 2015 in Indianapolis, Indiana. (Photo by Streeter Lecka/Getty Images)The No. 5 Wisconsin men’s basketball team last played at Michigan on Saturday and won’t take the court again until this Saturday at Iowa. With some extra free time this week, Badger big men Frank Kaminsky, Nigel Hayes and Duje Dukan are hanging out with the students at Glacier Edge Elementary School in nearby Verona, Wis. All three players spoke with the students as part of the school’s Kindness Week activities. The All-American Kaminsky even took a selfie with some students: #BadgersGiveBack #Notor #NigelHayesA photo posted by Frank Kaminsky (@fskpart3) on Jan 28, 2015 at 9:00am PST Dukan, who is 6-foot-10, tried to blend in with the crowd but it didn’t work out too well.New game: #WheresDuje? pic.twitter.com/GOY5bm3J8V— Wisconsin Basketball (@BadgerMBB) January 28, 2015 Hayes, meanwhile, may not have a future as a comedian judging off this joke, but he does know his state geography. Stand-up comedy with Nigel Hayes #BadgersGiveBackA video posted by Wisconsin Basketball (@badgermbb) on Jan 28, 2015 at 8:39am PSTOne underrated aspect of these photos and video is the impressive jersey game of some of the students at Glacier Edge. The local staples (Wisconsin and the Green Bay Packers) are of course represented, but shoutout to the kid in the sweet Dallas Mavericks throwback, and the two young men who wore the NFL jerseys of Badger alumni Russell Wilson and J.J. Watt.last_img read more

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Alberta banks on expanded Trans Mountain pipeline in budget forecasts

first_imgEDMONTON – Finance Minister Joe Ceci says Alberta is banking on anticipated revenue from an expansion of the Trans Mountain oil pipeline to balance the budget within five years.Ceci says revenue from the yet-to-be built expansion, along with expected revenue from a replacement Enbridge pipeline to Wisconsin, will be factored into forecasts in the budget he is to table on Thursday.He says it makes financial sense to include the pipelines now —given the expectation they will get completed — and the figures can be adjusted as the situation develops.“That is definitely the hopes of the companies that are involved,” Ceci said Tuesday. “We’ve built (the revenue) into budget because that’s what everybody believes will happen.”In 2016, the federal government approved the Enbridge Line 3 replacement to Wisconsin, as well as Kinder Morgan’s Trans Mountain expansion, which would triple the amount of crude shipped from Edmonton to the port at Burnaby, B.C.But the Trans Mountain expansion is facing delays and challenges.B.C. Premier John Horgan is asking for a legal ruling on whether his province can restrict higher levels of oil from coming into B.C. while his government reviews oil-spill safety measures.Alberta Premier Rachel Notley has said Trans Mountain is critical to Canada’s energy future and she plans to introduce legislation in the coming weeks to give her the power to curtail oil shipments to B.C. in retaliation.She has said that pipeline bottlenecks and limited access to overseas markets are forcing Alberta’s crude to sell at a discount, costing thousands of jobs and leaving billions of dollars of profit on the table.Opposition United Conservative Leader Jason Kenney said it’s risky for Ceci to count on future revenue from Trans Mountain.“We obviously hope that Trans Mountain gets built quickly, but what we’ve seen is a year of delays already and the very strong potential of yet further delays,” Kenney said.“This is putting a lot of eggs in one uncertain basket, and that’s not how you budget.”Ceci made the pre-budget announcement at a downtown tech startup company that creates virtual simulations for proposed homes and work sites.Finance ministers traditionally get new shoes prior to budget day. This year, Ceci stood next to a screen displaying a computer-generated avatar of himself in loafers that toggled from shimmering electric green to dark purple to traditional black and grey.He said the budget will continue with key NDP themes, but will include a detailed plan to balance the books.“The budget is going to be balanced in 2023,” said Ceci. “We are focused on constraining expenditures (and) costs down the road, eliminating … waste where we find it, and diversifying our economy.”The government won’t make deep cuts to balance the budget earlier, he said. This year’s deficit is pegged at $9.1 billion.Kenney said a plan tied to the mercurial ups and downs of oil prices is not a plan.“He (Ceci) has put on those virtual reality goggles and he can’t see clearly,” said Kenney. “He seems to be counting on good luck to get the budget balanced.”Notley took over in 2015 as oil prices, the wellspring of Alberta’s economy, were falling by half from previous highs of more than US$100 a barrel. Oil prices have inched up since then, but Notley’s government has avoided deep cuts to programs and services, saying that would worsen the economy.(Companies in this story: TSX:KML; TSX:ENB)last_img read more

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‘I have an opinion, but I’ll keep it to myself’

first_imgMumbai: After Kangana Ranaut slammed Alia Bhatt for not speaking over contemporary issues, the actor said while she respects the Queen star for voicing her opinions, she would like to keep hers private. Kangana had called Alia and her Gully Boy co-star Ranveer Singh’s comments of being apolitical “irresponsible” and lashed out at the duo for refusing to speak on politics. Asked about Kangana’s comments, Alia told reporters, “I definitely don’t have the ability to speak as candidly as Kangana Ranaut does, and I really do respect her for that ability and maybe in a way I think she is right, sometimes we do hold back.” “My dad also says that there are already so many opinions in the world that it can do with one less opinion,” the Udta Punjab actor asserted. “So, even if I have an opinion but I’ll keep it to myself. But, kudos to her as she genuinely speaks really well,” Bhatt further added. The Badrinath ki Dulhania actor was speaking at an event in Mumbai recently. “I am somebody who loves being an actor, I love acting. But in life I want to do so much more. I want to produce films, I won’t ever direct though. I want to work on social causes. I can do so much more with my life, this is just a beginning.” Alia will next be seen in Brahmastra and Kalank, both the films’ journey she described as “beautiful.” “Kalank is an unbelievable journey. It is an honour to be a part of such a great cast. The film’s director, Abhishek Varman is a dear friend. We all have really put in a lot of hard work for this one.”last_img read more

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GJM goes on poster cleaning crusade after polls in bid to make Hills clean again

first_imgDarjeeling: With the polls having ended, the Gorkha Janmukti Morcha has taken up the onus of cleaning up all campaigning material from the Hills.”Polls are over. It’s time to clean up the town. The youth organisation of the GJM will be cleaning Darjeeling, Kurseong, Kalimpong and Mirik. Our units will clean up the GTA area constituency-wise. We will remove the posters, banners and other campaign material. We also request other political parties to do the same,” stated Sanjiv Mothay, general secretary, Town Committee, Gorkha Janmukti Yuva Morcha. Also Read – Bengal family worships Muslim girl as Goddess Durga in Kumari PujaMembers of the Yuva Morcha went around town on Monday, removing campaign posters, banners and flexes. The campaign was flagged off from Chowk Bazaar in Darjeeling. Anit Thapa, general secretary, GJM (Binay faction) had made a similar appeal on Sunday. In his appeal, Thapa, who is also the present chairman, Board of Administrators, GTA, stated: “One of the main issues that we fought elections on this time is to make the Hills beautiful, along with reviving the lost glory. In order to once again make Darjeeling the Queen of the Hills, we have to bring about a change in the mindset of the residents. We have to take care of our Hills and make her beautiful. Also Read – Bengal civic volunteer dies in road mishap on national highwayWe have to unite to make her clean and green. A step in this direction would be to remove all the campaign material as the polls are over. We appeal to other political outfits to do the same.”With tourists thronging the Hills, clean and green is what should be presented, feels the GJM. The Opposition parties have hailed the move as well. “We welcome the move and we are also ready to pitch in,” stated Ajoy Edward, member, steering committee, GNLF.last_img read more

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Dear NFL Kickers Will Not Be Stopped

Did you hear about the NFL’s incredible new rule? On a point-after try, a defense will be able to score a 1-point safety by stopping the attempting team in its own end zone. Oh, and the new rule also moved the line of scrimmage for an extra point to the 15-yard line, making it the equivalent of a 33-yard field goal attempt.But indulge me for two seconds and let’s talk about this 1-point safety, a totally new thing in the NFL. Sure, it’s something that probably won’t come up very often – or, you know, ever. This new safety would occur if the offensive team fumbled the ball backwards, then the players kept knocking it backwards because of their gigantic butter-fingers until an offensive player finally recovered it in his own end zone (yes, on the other end of the field), where they were immediately tackled. (The offense can also score a 1-point safety, but that’s boring.) This opens up the tantalizing possibility of game scores traditionally reserved for baseball, soccer, or curling, like 6-1 (if the only points scored are a touchdown and a defensive point after safety) or 10-1 (if the only points scored are a touchdown, a defensive point-after safety, and two regular safeties).OK, thanks. Back to the longer extra point: The theory is that the league wants to make the play more exciting by making it less “automatic,” and perhaps by encouraging teams to go for two points more often. They’re unlikely to be very successful on either count.Kickers now convert extra points more than 99 percent of the time. That will almost certainly drop, but not by very much. It has been bandied about that kickers have made “only” 91.6 percent of attempts from this distance in the last 10 years. But 10 years is an eternity for kickers – they’re a whole lot better now than they were in 2005. As noted by Kevin Seifert, kickers have made 94.4 percent of field goals from this new distance over the last three years, and 96.7 percent last year. And that doesn’t account for the point-after kicks being slightly easier than their field goal counterparts: They’re never rushed for time, and they’re always taken from the center of the field (technically from wherever the kicker prefers). According to Pro Football Focus, kickers have made 97.6 percent of attempts taken from 30-35 yards from the dead-center of the field over the past three years.When I wrote about kickers in January I developed an era-sensitive model for kickers that at least partially accounts for hash marks (and, if I may, is scary accurate). It’s slightly more conservative than that Pro Football Focus mark, but predicts that kickers would make 96.4 percent of 33-yard kicks next year, rising to about 98 percent over the next 10 years.This isn’t the first time the NFL has been uncomfortable with how good kickers have gotten at their jobs. In 1974, the league moved the goal posts to the back of the end zone, effectively making XPs and other kicks 10 yards harder. Extra point success dropped from 98 percent the year before to 92.1 percent the year after. But it didn’t take long for kickers to recover:From an excitement standpoint, it’s tough to see a significant difference between teams making their extra points 96-98 percent of the time rather than 99. Even if misses happen slightly more often, they’re still going to be infrequent enough that I’d guess they’re more likely to annoy fans after the fact than keep them in suspense beforehand.And while this should marginally improve the math in favor of 2-point attempts, it’s not nearly dramatic enough to make going for two points the obviously better option. (It would have been if the NFL had also moved the line of scrimmage on 2-point attempts up to the 1-yard line, per the Eagles proposal.) Defenses will also be able to score two points on the play by returning a fumble, interception or blocked kick for a “touchdown,” as is the rule in college.And coaches are already pretty irrational about going for two. They have been converted about 47.4 percent of the time over the past 10 years, which would be enough to make them roughly the equivalent of kicking extra points (from an expected-value perspective; though that number may be low because teams that make 2-point attempts tend to be slightly worse than average). At the very least, the expected value of going for it versus kicking is so close that the decision should be dominated by the tactical situation (such as how far ahead or behind they are, and whether they should be playing it safe or trying to gamble) and how good the teams are in short yardage situations. But coaches still basically only make the 2-point attempt when they’re required to.If there is a big shift in favor of going for two, I think it’s more likely to be a result of coaches deciding the new rule gives them cover for it, rather than a large and fundamental shift in the math. And there’s precedent for this: The all-time high for successful 2-point attempts made was 59, set in 1994 – the year the play was first introduced. read more

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Saturdays loss affects pride more than championship chances

The Badgers took down the top-ranked, undefeated Buckeyes in Madison, Wis. It’s happened twice since October in two sports. But let’s move on. Let’s move on from Badger fans allegedly spitting on Ohio State players, chanting homophobic slurs with Buckeyes on the free-throw line and screaming, “F— Ohio!” before the opening tip. The land’s best fans are above that. Let’s move on from the notion that somehow there’s a connection between Saturday’s loss and the Oct. 16 football game. Let’s move on because, unlike that football game, this team’s chances at a National Championship are the same now as they were on Friday. A loss in February does not break what could be a dream season in college basketball. Coach Thad Matta has continually emphasized that this team’s goal was never to go undefeated — it was to win the Big Ten Championship. The team had already moved on from an undefeated season before taking its first loss. Even with the defeat, OSU leads the conference by two games with six contests left. Four of those are at home, including the regular-season finale, a rematch against Wisconsin on March 6 in Columbus. At this point, it would take more than one loss to cost this team a No. 1 seed in the NCAA Tournament. But while Saturday’s defeat is relatively inconsequential in the big picture, it sure doesn’t feel that way, does it? Until the Buckeyes beat the Badgers, there are things that happened in the loss to Wisconsin that we can’t move on from. We can’t move on from watching a 15-point lead dissolve almost instantaneously, after a barrage of threes jet-fueled the bedlam at the Kohl Center.    We can’t move on from that unutterable feeling that churned the pits of our stomachs when we watched a guy named Mike Bruesewitz hit a game-deciding shot, when Wisconsin’s student body rushed the floor or when we couldn’t turn on the TV without seeing Jordan Taylor’s stat line that included 5-for-8 on 3-point shooting. We can’t move on from the fact that Wisconsin fans have started labeling the Badgers “Buckeye Killers.” The rate of winning that OSU has achieved in football and basketball makes losing to the same school over and over again that much worse. We wouldn’t be the fan base we are if these things didn’t bother us. It’s part of a good fan’s DNA to squirm when falling to a rival, regardless of whether the loss means anything. But the beautiful thing about sports is there’s always another opportunity. And the impact of Saturday’s result would shrink if the Buckeyes hammered the Badgers March 6 at home, like they should. “To be spit on is just nasty,” freshman forward Jared Sullinger tweeted following the game. “On top of that in my Face. Before and after the game. Smh. I just kept walking. More fuel to the fire.” Although it was tough, Sullinger did the right thing. Wisconsin will get what’s coming. Until then, let’s move on. read more

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